All posts by gillmour

Course Content for Six Sigma Black Belt

• Introduction
1. A brief history of Quality
2. What is Quality (Definitions) and service or product
3. Quality Gurus & their contribution to Quality
4. Enterprisewide View
5. Leadership
6. Six Sigma Roles and Responsibilities
7. Team Formation
8. Team Facilitation
9. Team Dynamics
10. Time Management For Teams
11. Team Decision making Tools
12. Management and Planning Tools
13. Team Performance Evaluation And Rewards
14. Overview of DMAIC

• Define
1. Important Stakeholders
2. Impact On Stakeholders
3. Critical To X Requirements
4. Benchmarking
5. Business performance measures
6. Financial measures
7. VOC
8. Kano’s Customer Satisfaction Levels
9. Juran’s customer needs
10. Market research
11. CTQ Flowdown
12. QFD
13. Performance Metrics
14. Project Charter
15. Charter Negotiation
16. Project management plan and Baselines
17. Project Tracking

• Measure
1. Processes, Process characteristics, process flow metrics, inputs and outputs
2. Process maps and Flow chart
3. SIPOC
4. Data Type & Measurement scale
5. Data Collection
6. Sampling strategies
7. Fishbone Diagram
8. Relational Matrices or Prioritization Matrix
9. Basic Statistics
10. Analytical Statistics
11. Gauge R & R
12. Process Capability Analysis

• Analyze
1. Correlation and Regression Analysis
2. Testing of Hypothesis
3. FMEA
4. Gap Analysis
5. The Five Whys
6. Pareto Diagram
7. Tree Diagram
8. Non-value added activities
9. Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ)

• Improve
1. DOE
2. Poka-yoke
3. 5S
4. SMED
5. Continuous Flow Manufacturing
6. Kaizen
7. Kanban
8. Theory of constraints
9. Risk analysis

• Control
1. Statistical Process Control
2. Other Control Tools
3. Maintain Controls
4. Sustaining Improvements

• DFSS
1. DFSS

• Case Study 1
1. Case Study 1 Part 1
2. Case Study 1 Part 2

• Case Study 2
1. Case Study 2 Part 1
2. Case Study 2 Part 2


Курсът съдържа цялата информация, необходима за успешно полагане на изпита. Учете от всеки компютър и от всяко място, когато и колкото искате! Не са необходими никакви специални технически средства. Можете да повтаряте материала и тестовите въпроси неограничен брой пъти.

В цената са включени официален сертификационен изпит Six Sigma Black Belt (180 минути, 125 въпроса) и сертификат при успешен изпит. Изпитът се провежда онлайн на предварително заявени от Вас дата и час.


Предварително условие: Six Sigma Green Belt


Насладете се на богато учебно съдържание и модерни и ефективни учебни инструменти! Курсът Six Sigma Green Belt включва:

  • 65 Videos 
  • 7 Chapters 
  • 66 Helpful Study Guides (PDF)
  • Podcasts
  • Chapter tests

6 Process Maps You Should Know & How to Choose the Right One

A process map is an important part of any Lean Six Sigma project – it helps communicate the process at the center of your project and guides you to specific areas of focus. There are a number of choices available, and choosing the right map helps to clarify your efforts.

The wrong map might confuse matters or simply waste your time. I’ll share key aspects of the following map types:

  1. SIPOC (and SIPOC-R)
  2. High Level Map
  3. Detailed Map
  4. Swimlane Map
  5. Relationship Map
  6. Value Stream Map

The intent is to help you make a useful choice, but not go into how to build each map. If you Google each map name you’ll find examples and guides for constructing them and there are links to helpful templates for some of them. Keep in mind that there are plenty of opinions on the “right” way to make them – find what works for you.

Map #1: SIPOC

SIPOC is an acronym for Supplier – Inputs – Process – Outputs – Customer, and may not be considered a true process map by a purist. I like to think of it as a “one box” process map. That might not seem like much of a map, but it establishes the basis for subsequent mapping.

The importance of the SIPOC is that it shows, in very simple terms, what the process accomplishes while identifying the key players. The center contains the a few high-level process steps. The required inputs (and their providers) are listed to the left, and the key process outputs (and their recipients) are listed to the right. The SIPOC provides a focus for discussion of what the process is all about.

The importance of the SIPOC is that it shows, in very simple terms, what the process accomplishes while identifying the key players.

https://goleansixsigma.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/SIPOC_BillEureka.jpg

In this case we are examining the purchasing process in which a requester submits a purchase requisition that details what’s to be purchased. The requisition is received and a purchase order is issued to a supplier, who subsequently delivers what was ordered. The SIPOC also can define the scope of the project: in this case, the process of converting a request into an order placed with the supplier. It does not include the actual delivery, the invoicing or the payment. The SIPOC would have different outputs or customers if the project had a broader scope.

I recommend creating a SIPOC for every project because they are helpful when discussing the process with others and they’re incredibly simple to make! Your first SIPOC may feel a bit awkward, but with a little practice you can make a SIPOC for nearly any process in less than five minutes.

The SIPOC discussed here is the simplest form – there have been many improvements, including the SIPOC-R (discussed next), and the GoLeanSixSigma version, which actually combines the SIPOC with a high level process map (see https://goleansixsigma.com/sipoc/).

SIPOC-R

The SIPOC-R is a variation on the SIPOC in which the requirements (or specifications) for the inputs and outputs are listed, typically just under each input or output. In this case, a proper requisition might include the item description, date needed, an account number to charge, and an authorizing signature. Often the additional detail provided by requirements offers clues to problems we might wish to solve. If the problem exists even though all of the input requirements have been satisfied, then the cause is either in the process itself or in a missing (unstated) requirement. On the other hand, if the requirement has not been met, we should investigate the causes and you may not need to delve into the process details.

If we need to examine the process, we want to make sure we see how the process converts the SIPOC inputs into the outputs, so the SIPOC can help us avoid missing some important relationships.

Map #2: High Level Process Map

High Level Process Maps show how the process works in just a few steps. The purpose is to provide quick and easy insights into what the process does, without getting into the details of how it’s done. This can be useful when communicating to leadership and others who have no need (or interest) in seeing the details.

High Level Maps typically don’t require a deep knowledge of the process, so you can often construct them with the assistance of managers. Think of the High Level Map as simply an expansion of the center “process” from the SIPOC into five to ten more detailed boxes. This map shows where all the inputs go, and where all the outputs are created.

High Level Maps typically don’t require a deep knowledge of the process, so you can often construct them with the assistance of managers.

In this case, each function or department is shown in a different color. This isn’t essential, but it’s useful. In most projects a High Level Process Map is adequate to describe the process. As you investigate underlying problems, you can put marks next to the steps (dot’s, x’s, stars) when you find problems originating in that step. When complete, it forms a visual concentration diagram, showing where the problems lie in the process.

Map #3: Detailed Process Map

We don’t normally need to see the entire process in detail, but there may be some parts of the process that require a Detailed Process Map. This is especially true if there are a number of problems with that step. In this example, we might be interested in exploring the Purchasing step.  We simply consider the input to that step, identify what immediately happens with that input and then repeatedly ask the “what happens next?” question until we produce the output. If this provides the necessary level of detail, we can stop here. If, however, we need to know more about the “Get three quotes” part of the process, we could explode it into more detail.  The key is selectively diving into the detail. It’s a lot of work to create a detailed process map – you need to talk to the people who work the process in order to find out what really happens – managers often don’t know the process at this level of detail. I prefer to start with a High Level Map and let the needs of the project dictate when to go into more detail and how far to dive down.

The exception is if we intend to radically streamline the process. In that case we have to get close to the “work instruction” level of detail in order to isolate the few nuggets of the process that are truly value-added.

The exception is if we intend to radically streamline the process.

Finding value-added activities in a process cannot be done in a High Level Process Map. In fact, if the value-added activity is evenly distributed throughout the process, then at a high level, all of the steps will appear to be value-added because they all contain an activity that contributes value. If you blow up each step into its detail you will find that the true value-added activity is isolated in one or two small steps.

Map #4: Swimlane Map

Swimlane Maps separate the steps into lanes or channels according to who does the activity. If we have a process map where the participants have been identified by departmental colors, simply “sliding” the steps so those of the same color line up in a horizontal row, it becomes a Swimlane Map.

This Swimlane Map is especially helpful when establishing work instructions and training for the new process because it makes each participant’s role explicit.

This style of process map is highly valued because it clearly shows “who does what,” when they do it and an arrow crossing a lane indicates, a handoff. For this reason, Swimlane Maps are favored by managers who who appreciate additional information. The drawback is that Swimlane Maps are not space efficient, especially if there are multiple lanes with few steps.  In such maps some lanes are nearly empty which means the overall process map takes up more space. In addition, processes with a lot of handoffs can be awkward to depict in a Swimlane Map since they result in many arrows crossing multiple lanes. My preference is to use traditional, high level and detailed maps during the project work, and use the Swimlane Maps for the improved process since it will be simpler with fewer boxes, participants and handoffs. This Swimlane Map is especially helpful when establishing work instructions and training for the new process because it makes each participant’s role explicit.

Map #5: Relationship Map

Relationship Maps are technically not process maps since they don’t detail the work done, but they do show the participants and how materials, paper or information flows between them. This map was popularized by Rummler-Brache, and is not widely used, but I wanted to share it as an option. This map is useful when initially exploring the process, typically at a high level, to determine the identity of participants.

If there are only a couple of participants in the process there is no point in creating a Relationship Map, but if there are many participants it is a helpful addition to a High Level Process Map. Once you have created a Relationship Map, you can use it to complete your process map by confirming that the arrows in the Relationship Map originate from the steps creating the unit and end in the proper place.

Map #6: Value Stream Map

Value Stream Maps are typically used in Lean applications where we are interested in either showing pull scheduling or opportunities to do pull scheduling. They are often detailed and difficult to read. However, they are rich with information that is useful when planning process improvements. Value Stream Maps are often used when planning a Lean implementation to display the current state of the process including material flows, information flows and other information important for Lean implementations.

A few distinguishing features:

  • Material moves from left to right
  • Information which triggers release of materials or scheduling of production moves from right to left
  • Work-in-Process (WIP) is shown in the triangles
  • Relevant process details such as cycle time, changeover time, etc. are shown below each process step
  • Wait time and work time appear on a line at the bottom of the map
  • Improvement opportunities appear as starbursts

They require more skill to build than simpler process maps, but they provide great information.

Value Stream Maps are sometimes called Material and Information Flow Diagrams. They require more skill to build than simpler process maps, but they provide great information. For this process, the diagram shows there is essentially neither pull nor flow, a little over a day’s worth of work-in-process inventory and lots of wait time. The process should produce one part every 18 minutes (takt time) to meet the customer demand, but four of the five process steps cannot meet this output pace. It takes 6.56 days for a part to get through the process (though it’s needed in 5 days), after receiving 108 minutes of work. An experienced Lean practitioner will quickly see a lot of opportunity here!

Choosing the Right Map

It may seem that I am advocating the Value Stream Map, but I am not. For Lean implementations it is helpful, but for routine problem solving it may be substantial overkill. So how do we choose the right map for the job? The following chart provides guidance:

Many projects make use of several maps types. You might start out with a SIPOC, followed by a High Level Map. After some investigation you might decide to make a detailed map of selective portions of the areas where problems exist. After finding root causes and creating a revised process, the Swimlane Map can provide helpful documentation.

VSM Value Stream Mapping

Value stream mapping (VSM) is a lean manufacturing tool that seeks to map your process from supplier to customer, highlighting the flows of product and information and identifying delays and non-value adding processes.

It is a top level view of your company rather than a detailed look at an individual process within it, but this map is a real eye opener for top management. This is one of the most powerful and yet easy to use mapping tools at your disposal and can lead to a rapid and significant improvement to your business if action is taken following the mapping exercise.

VSM is not just about creating one map; it is about discovering where we are today with a current value stream map and using the team to create an ideal state value stream map as a target to aim for whilst creating a series of future state maps to work towards on the journey to our ideal state.

Why do we need VSM

VSM

Value Stream Map

We need value stream mapping to create a common vision and direction for our company, a current state map created by those involved in the processes creates buy in and understanding as to where we are. The creation of an ideal state together provides that shared vision that all can buy into and work towards.

The creation of future state maps and related action plans help to generate improvements and change within the company worked on by all.

With Lean we are trying to compress the time from order receipt through to the cash arriving in our bank account, This best done through an evaluation of the value stream as a whole, not just concentrating on the small period of our lead time taken up by manufacture.

What do we Map?

Value stream mapping is usually conducted on a single product or family of products from supplier through to customer. Where we have multiple products it is tempting to try to map them all but this would just result in information overload.

The team should choose one product or family on which to create the map, any improvements made on this value stream can then be used as a template to improve other value streams. At times it is difficult to find product families if you have a large number of individual products. Product family analysis is a useful tool to use to find the similarities between products to allow the creation of families.

How do we VSM

Value stream mapping is a team process that should take place at the gemba (the workplace), not within an office by an expert using data from written procedures about what should happen. Your value stream map should reflect exactly what does happen along with real current data regarding stock levels, delays, change over times, quality levels and so forth. It is this map that will form the basis for your improvements.

Ideal and Future state Value stream maps

Once you have your agreed version of your current state map it is time to move directly onto creating your ideal and future state maps.

The ideal state value stream map requires a firm understanding of lean manufacturing principles to enable the team to visualize an ideal lean process. This would often be a single dedicated cell controlled through a pull kanban system rather than a grouping of shared processes each scheduled from an MRP system pushing product onto the next process, with daily or even hourly deliveries to customer and from supplier. The ultimate ideal of course being single piece flow at the demand of the customer (JIT).

Often it is impossible to jump straight from the current state to the ideal so the team needs to agree a future state map to work towards on the journey to the ideal state. This then becomes the basis for an action plan; you may wish to first work at standardizing and improving processes to improve cycle times and reduce defects or whatever the most pressing issue is for your business highlighted on your VSM.

Creating A Value Stream Map

This is a step by step guide to creating a current state value stream map, the first step in working towards your ideal state value stream and a truly lean system. Your current state value stream map is a team effort that is conducted by those people who are involved in the process, at the actual process, not by an expert locked in a room with a pile of procedures.

Below we will go through;

  • Selecting the product (family) to map
  • VSM Symbols
  • Defining the process boundaries
  • The Process Steps
  • Information Flows
  • Process Data
  • Calculating the Time Line
  • Multiple Suppliers and Customers
  • Interpreting the Data
  • Next Steps (Ideal and future state maps)

You can also download a free Value Stream Mapping presentation in PPT and PDF format that goes with this page:

How to Value Stream Map Presentation PPT Download

How to VSM presentation PDF Download

What is Value Stream Mapping (VSM)

Your Value stream map is a representation of the flow of materials from supplier to customer through your organization as well as the flow of information. This enables you to see at a glance where the delays are in your process, any restraints and excessive inventory. Your current state map is the first step in working towards your ideal state for your organization.

How to create a VSM

Value stream mapping (VSM) is a team exercise and should involve representatives from all of the areas within the process being mapped, this process should be facilitated and led by an expert with experience in creating value stream maps. A value stream map is best created by hand using a pencil (you will need to make frequent corrections and changes) on a sheet of A3 paper. It is better to create by hand and involve the entire team in its creation rather than have an expert take the information and return later with a finished map!

Step by step guide to Value Stream Mapping;

Select the product or product family

Product Family Selection

Use a simple matrix to show products that use the same process route.

Firstly we need to decide what it is exactly that we wish to map, in a company with many products there may have to be some initial work done to identify which product or family group of products that should be mapped, we may decide to go with highest volume or value, or take a longer term strategic look at those product ranges that we expect to do more business with in the future or we may be guided by our customers as to what to map.

If we have a plethora of products we may wish to first conduct a product family analysis, this is a simple review  of our products and which processes they go through. It may not be necessary to analyze all products, use a Pareto analysis to decide which products you need to analyze (either through volume or value or a combination.) This analysis can help us group together products that share common routing through our processes. Our value stream map can then concentrate on either a single product or a family of them sharing common processes.

Value Stream Mapping Symbols

VSM Symbols

Some of the symbols for use in VSM

The picture to the Left shows some of the commonly used value stream mapping symbols and their meanings. It is not necessary to use these specific symbols, if you have symbols that are more relevant / descriptive for your processes then use those.

Bound the Process

We need to decide the limits of our map, most value stream maps are conducted from supplier through to customer within an organization and these should be the first boxes placed on your VSM to bound the process. It is possible to map the entire supply chain, in this case the start and end points for your process map would be the raw materials and the final consumer, instead of putting boxes for process steps thereafter however you would use companies.

Process steps

VSM Process Steps

Add process boundaries and process steps to your VSM

Once you have your process boundaries established you need to define your process steps for your map, some people advocate walking the process from customer back to supplier or the other way around, quite frankly it does not matter too much which way you do it.

The process steps are the various operations that are performed on the product, these are generally located in a single place with one point that inventory enters and then leaves. We are not breaking down each operation into specific tasks, there are other process mapping techniques such as flow charting that would be a better tool for analyzing to that level of detail.

Add Information Flows to your Value Stream Map

VSM Information Flows

Add information flows to your VSM

One of the things that differentiates a VSM from most other mapping tools is the inclusion of the information flows into the map. We need to include how the customers order product, frequency and method, and how we translate that back to our supplier. We also include how we then communicate requirements to our processes to ensure that we produce what the customer wants.

Collect Process Data

This where we need to do a little thinking and some work, get the team to collect data regarding the performance of each step of the process; typical types of date to collect are;

  • Inventory
  • Cycle time (time taken to make one product)
  • Change over time (from last good piece to next)
  • Up-time (on-demand machine utilization)
  • Number of operators
  • Shifts worked
  • Net available working time
  • Scrap rate
  • Pack size/pallet sizes
  • Batch Size
Process Data for VSM

Add data to data boxes on your Value Stream Map

Select the relevant measures for your process and record actual data at the workplace, try to avoid “historical” measures where possible, get your own current information. If you do use timings and other data from the “system” to save time make a note of those measures and ensure that you go back and verify them during the action phase. Record this data in the “data boxes” on your Value Stream Map

Inventory

Inventory and overproduction are two of the biggest of the seven wastes of lean and tend to occur when we have problems in our production processes. We use excess inventory to cushion ourselves against process problems so careful note should be taken of inventory build up. When counting inventory for your map question carefully as it is not unusual to find pallets of inventory stored in odd locations due to previous problems or as a contingency.

Time Line

Value Stream Map

Our completed current State Value Stream Map

We create the time line to give us information about total process times and lead times for inventory through our processes; we use the inventory at each stage and the daily demand to calculate the amount of stock in days and add this to the top of the time line, this will allow us to calculate a total lead time. The cycle time for one product is then placed in the lower portion and this will be added to give a total processing time.

It is usual to at this point to have lead times that are several days to several weeks and processing times that are are only a few minutes which highlights just how much waste there is in our system.

This gives us our completed current state value stream map; now the real work can start.

Multiple Suppliers and Customers in VSM

The map produced above is a fairly simple map with just one customer and one supplier, more often than not we have multiple suppliers and customers and it may be necessary to draw on more than one. In this case the process is still the same but when you calculate your timeline use the worst case for inventory. If you have many suppliers it may be worth concentrating on your most important suppliers or grouping them into similar types such as fasteners.

More often than not you can still show multiple customers as one, or if required as groups with similar requirements such as weekly or monthly demands.

Interpreting the Value Stream Map

The data boxes and the timeline contain much information about our process, you can now see in one document where the problem areas within your process lie, issues such as;

  • Excessive Inventory
  • Long cycle times
  • Low uptime
  • Excessive Setup Times
  • Poor Quality / Rework

Creating an Ideal and Future State Value Stream Map

These problems highlighted above could all be tackled one by one; but what we really need is a vision of where we want to end up so that we can focus our efforts on achieving an agreed “Ideal State.” The team guided by the expert should create an ideal state value stream map which should envision the absolute best the process could be, this should then be agreed by senior management as the ultimate goal of your value stream mapping exercise. This Ideal state could be a single cell rather than isolated process silos in different parts of the factory with daily (or more frequent) deliveries to the customer and from the supplier. Kanban systems could be utilized to remove the need for planning and scheduling as well as many other ideas that could be considered.

Ideal State VSM

Moving from Current state through an iteration of future state maps towards our Ideal

Once you have your ideal state then you can plan to achieve your shared vision of where the process needs to be; the simplest way to do this is to plan a series of improvements, each taking two to three months, and use your value stream map to communicate what you want to do. Use the kaizen burst symbol on your current state map to highlight the improvements that you want to make, for instance reducing the setup time on the final test from 20 minutes to 5 minutes, your aspirations for your improvements become your future state value stream map. You may need several iterations of future state maps before you finally reach your ideal state.

How to Make a Bell Curve in Excel (Step-by-step Guide)

A bell curve (also known as normal distribution curve) is a way to plot and analyze data that looks like a bell curve.

In the bell curve, the highest point is the one that has the highest probability of occurring, and the probability of occurrences goes down on either side of the curve.

It is often used during employee performance appraisals or during evaluation in exams (ever heard – “You will be graded on the curve?”).

Now before I jump in on how to create a bell curve in Excel, let’s get a better understanding of the concept by taking an example.

Understanding the Bell Curve

Suppose you work in a team of 100 members and your manager tells you that your performance will be relative to others and will be evaluated on the bell curve.

This means that even if your team is the best team ever and you’re all superheroes, only a handful of you would get the top rating, most of the people in your team would get an average rating, and a handful will get the lowest rating.

Bell Curve in Excel (distribution curve) - Understanding the Concept

Image Source: EmpxTrack

But why do we need the bell curve?

Fair question!

Suppose you have a class of 100 students that appear for an exam. According to your grading system, anyone who gets above 80 out of 100 gets an A grade. But since you set a really easy paper, everyone scored above 80 and got the A grade.

Now there is nothing wrong in this kind of grading system. However, using it, you can not differentiate between someone who got 81 and someone who got 95 (as both would get the A grade).

To keep the comparison fair and keep the competitive spirit alive, a bell curve is often used to evaluate performances (at least that’s how it was when I was in college).

Using the bell curve approach, the marks of students are converted into percentiles that are then compared with each other.

Students getting higher marks are on the right side of the curve and students getting low marks are on the left of the curve (with most of the students being in the middle around mean score).

Now to understand bell curve, you need to know about two metrics:

  • Mean – the average value of all the data points
  • Standard Deviation – it shows how much the dataset deviates from the mean of the dataset. For example, suppose you have a group of 50 people, and you are recording their weight (in kgs). In this dataset, the average weight is 60 kg, and the standard deviation is 4 kg. It means that 68% of the people’s weight is within 1 standard deviation from the mean – which would be 56-64 kg. Similarly, 95% of the people are within 2 standard deviation – which would be 52-68 Kgs.

When you have a dataset that is normally distributed, your bell curve will follow the below rules:

  •  The center of the bell curve is the mean of the data point (also the highest point in the bell curve).
  • 68.2% of the total data points lie in the range (Mean – Standard Deviation to Mean + Standard Deviation).
  • 95.5% of the total data points lie in the range (Mean – 2*Standard Deviation to Mean + 2*Standard Deviation)
  • 99.7% of the total data points lie in the range (Mean – 3*Standard Deviation to Mean + 3*Standard Deviation)
Bell Curve Example Graph (distribution curve)

Image Source: MIT News

Now let’s see how to create a bell curve in Excel.

Creating a Bell Curve in Excel

Let’s take an example of a class of students that have been scored in an exam.

The mean score of the class is 65 and the standard deviation is 10. (You can calculate the mean using the AVERAGE function in Excel and Standard Deviation using the STDEV.P function).

Here are the steps to create a bell curve for this dataset:

  • In cell A1 enter 35. This value can be calculated using Mean – 3* Standard Deviation (65-3*10).
  • In the cell below it enter 36 and create a series from 35 to 95 (where 95 is  Mean + 3* Standard Deviation). You can do this quickly by using the autofill option, or use the fill handle and drag it down to fill the cells.
  • In the cell adjacent to 35, enter the formula: =NORM.DIST(A1,65,10,FALSE)
    • Note that here I have hardcoded the value of mean and standard deviation. You can also have these in cells and use the cell references in the formula.
  • Again use the fill handle to quickly copy and paste the formula for all the cells.
  • Select the data set and go to Insert tab.
  • Insert the ‘Scatter with Smooth Lines’ chart.

This will give you a bell curve in Excel.

Bell Curve when created in Excel

Now you can change the chart title and adjust the axis if you need.

Note that when you have a low standard deviation, you get a packed slim bell curve, and when you have a high standard deviation, the bell curve is wide and covers more area on the chart.

This kind of bell curve can be used to identify where a data point lies in the chart. For example, in case a team is full of high performers, when evaluated on a curve, despite being a high performer, someone can get an average rating as he/she was in the middle of the curve.

Note: In this blog post, I have discussed the concept of a bell curve and how to create it in Excel. A statistician would be better suited to talk about the efficacy of the bell curve and limitations associated with it. I am more of an Excel guy and my involvement with Bell curve has been limited to the calculations I did when I worked as a Financial Analyst.

Hope you found this tutorial useful!

Let me know your thoughts in the comments section.

LEAN – 6 Sigma

https://statstuff.com/training-path/advanced/minmax-analysis

Six Sigma DMAIC Roadmap

The Six Sigma DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) methodology can be thought of as a roadmap for problem solving and product/process improvement. Most companies begin implementing Six Sigma using the DMAIC methodology, and later add the DFSS (Design for Six Sigma, also known as DMADV or IDDOV) methodologies when the organizational culture and experience level permits. You can read the main differences between DMAIC and DMADV, but we’ll focus on the DMAIC in this article.

While the DMAIC methodology presented below may appear linear and explicitly defined, it should be noted that an iterative approach may be necessary – especially for Black Belts and Green Belts that are new to the tools and techniques that make up DMAIC. For instance, you may find that upon analyzing your data (Analyze phase) you did not gather enough data to isolate the root cause of the problem. At this point, you may iterate back to the Measure phase. In addition, prior knowledge of the tools and techniques is necessary in determining which tools are useful in each phase. Remember, the appropriate application of tools becomes more critical for effectiveness than correctness, and you don’t need to use all the tools all the time.

DMAIC Phase Steps Tools Used
D – Define Phase: Define the project goals and customer (internal and external) deliverables.
Define Customers and Requirements (CTQs)Develop Problem Statement, Goals and BenefitsIdentify Champion, Process Owner and TeamDefine ResourcesEvaluate Key Organizational SupportDevelop Project Plan and MilestonesDevelop High Level Process MapProject CharterProcess FlowchartSIPOC DiagramStakeholder AnalysisDMAIC Work Breakdown StructureCTQ DefinitionsVoice of the Customer Gathering
Define Tollgate Review
M – Measure Phase: Measure the process to determine current performance; quantify the problem.
Define Defect, Opportunity, Unit and MetricsDetailed Process Map of Appropriate AreasDevelop Data Collection PlanValidate the Measurement SystemCollect the DataBegin Developing Y=f(x) RelationshipDetermine Process Capability and Sigma BaselineProcess FlowchartData Collection Plan/Example BenchmarkingMeasurement System Analysis/Gage R&RVoice of the Customer GatheringProcess Sigma Calculation
Measure Tollgate Review
A – Analyze Phase: Analyze and determine the root cause(s) of the defects.
Define Performance ObjectivesIdentify Value/Non-Value Added Process StepsIdentify Sources of VariationDetermine Root Cause(s)Determine Vital Few x’s, Y=f(x) RelationshipHistogramPareto ChartTime Series/Run ChartScatter PlotRegression AnalysisCause and Effect/Fishbone Diagram5 WhysProcess Map Review and AnalysisStatistical AnalysisHypothesis Testing (Continuous and Discrete)Non-Normal Data Analysis
Analyze Tollgate Review
I – Improve Phase: Improve the process by eliminating defects.
Perform Design of ExperimentsDevelop Potential SolutionsDefine Operating Tolerances of Potential SystemAssess Failure Modes of Potential SolutionsValidate Potential Improvement by Pilot StudiesCorrect/Re-Evaluate Potential SolutionBrainstormingMistake ProofingDesign of ExperimentsPugh MatrixQFD/House of QualityFailure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)Simulation Software
Improve Tollgate Review
C – Control Phase: Control future process performance.
Define and Validate Monitoring and Control SystemDevelop Standards and ProceduresImplement Statistical Process ControlDetermine Process CapabilityDevelop Transfer Plan, Handoff to Process OwnerVerify Benefits, Cost Savings/Avoidance, Profit GrowthClose Project, Finalize DocumentationCommunicate to Business, CelebrateProcess Sigma CalculationControl Charts (Variable and Attribute)Cost Savings CalculationsControl Plan
Control Tollgate Review

As you can see, the power of the Six Sigma DMAIC methodology lies in the structure and the rigor. Of the hundreds of TQM tools that have been developed over the years, the most important ones (described above) are taught in detail by consultants to Black Belts and Master Black Belts.

Мерна единица






Мерна единица

Има критерий, които човек определя сам

За оценка на това колко е повлияла средата и обкръжението на
даден човек аз също си имам критерии, са описани в таблицата по-долу.

Тук става въпрос само за битието. Съзнанието, което определя
битието все още ми е в сферата на фантастиката, но знан че ги има.

Клас

Описание

Степен
на самочувствие

Название
на степента

-3

Съзнанието определящо битието

Преобразувано такова

Еволюирал

-2

Със съвест, прекоменрно честен, отговорен. Бори се ежедневно с
простащината.

Ниско

Изчезващ

-1

Малко над средното с чувство за отговорност. Разбира къде се намира,
но е безсилен да промени статуквото.

На моменти има самочувствие, но не го показва показност

Съзнателен

0

Нормален без предразсъдъци, честен, първичен

Безволево

Рядък

1

Среден – средата заглушава човечността.

Силно

Педераст

2

Такива като този ги търсят в сферата на услугите.

Работят по зададени методи и средата и обкръжението не им дава да
излезнат от кожата си поради това, че така е устроен живота, че без да се
подчиняват няма да живеят добре, защото им плащат да бъдат такива.

Голямо без покритие с моментни позьорства поради липса на други
ценности

Търсен

3

Има си го в кръвта. Безскруполен. Стремящ се към власт и облаги. Няма
нищо по ценно за него от парите и облагите. Няма нужда от четкане зашото на
него не му е нужно. Той е над всички. Средата само подпомага той да се държи
на ниво и да се развива.

Непречуваемо – до позьорство

Безценен

4

Единствено семейното обкръжение го определя като човек. От гореспоменатите
класове, той притежава всичко. Има леки наклонности да потъпче семейството,
но има страх да не остане сам.

Аз-ът

Самоселяндур

5

АЗ-ът или този който потъпквав дори семейните ценности. Не може да се
определи като чевешко същество. Само физическите белези са остатък от това,
че е роден от хуманоид.

0

Едноклетъчно

 

Какво ме накара да направя тази оценка?

Писмо до мобилен оператор.

Ето и писмото от моя
страна:

Здравейте

Казвам се Илиян
Драганов.

Бих искал да знам,
какво да направя за да ми бъде спряна услугата "Цифрова телевизия"?

аб. №abcdefgh или ЕГН xxxxxxxxxx.

Единствената услуга
която бих искал да използвам е интернета.

Бих искал това да се
случи в рамките на месец юни 2018.

+359 8xx xxxx74

+359 8xx xxxx35

С уважение, Илиян
Драганов

 Отговор от страна на А1.

Уважаеми г-н Драганов,

Благодаря Ви, че се
свързахте с нас!

Описания от Вас
договор е до 28.10.2018 г.

Моля имайте предвид,
че предсрочното му погасяване е възможно след заплащане на регламентираната
неустойка.

Относно въпроса Ви за
преминаване на пакет само за интернет – това е възможно, но ще трябва да
преподпишете за нов 2 годишен период и таксата да не бъде по-ниска от текущата.

 

1.      
Съгласен съм с предсрочното погасяване. И все
пак има клаузи от техния договор, които не са ги спазили. Така, че не могат да
излизат с този номер.

2.      
Кой каза, че искам да е същия договор? Защо си
мислят, че ще се навия?

3.      
Защо не ми предлагат да се прекрати текущия
договор и да подпиша съвсем нов с моите искани услуги?

4.      
Защо не ми казват, как се процедира ако искам да
прекратя договора? Колко месеца предварително трябва да подам молба? И защо
изобщо да подавам молба? Край? И толкова.

5.      
Защо стандартния текст, който ми изпращат не го
подменят с по-прозрачни условия и да се отговаря адекватно?

Оценката на служителите от този
мобилен оператор съгласно гореспоменатата таблица е клас 1 или 2.

Принудени са да действат по този
начин.

Твърде е възможно е служителя да
е истински човек. Със ценности, със самосъзнание в чувство на отговорност и
вътрешно да му трепери под лъжичката, че в върнал такъв отговор, но нищо не
може да направи. След време претръпва и спи спокойно, защото знае, че това е
работата му и наистина го разбирам, че той е чист пред себе си и отговорността
е върху този от компанията, който е написал тези правила.

 

Къде съм аз по скалата? И аз съм
един педераст.

Brutal Assault Festival

brutal assault

http://brutalassault.cz/en/bands/

Date and opening hours
Wednesday – Saturday August 08-11, 2018

Start on Wednesday, Aug 08th 15:30; Thursday, Aug 9th at 10:30 AM;
Friday, Aug 10th at 10:30 AM; Saturday, Aug 11th at 10:30 AM

Festival area will be open from 07:00 to 05:00 daily
On Wednesday will be open from 12:00 to 05:00

Guarded parking will be open on Tuesday, August 07th, from 12:00 noon

Camping site will be open on Tuesday, August 07th, from 12:00 noon

The main presale tickets check-in will be open from Tuesday, August 07th, from 12:00 noon and onwards

The main box office (tickets sale, reserved tickets, accreditation, guests) will be open from Tuesday, August 07th, from 15:00 onwards

Place
JAROMEŘ – Old Army Fortress JOSEFOV / Czech Republic (130km east of Prague)

Direct address: 5.kvetna street, 551 02 Jaromer-Josefov